Historical places of Egypt
Visit the most historical places of Egypt and see an exhibition of photographs showing the different historical places.
Egypt Tours : Historical Places
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Egypt Historical Places

Visit the most historical places of Egypt and see an exhibition of photographs showing the different historical places.


01. Abu Simbel( Ramesses II, Nefertari Temples) 19. Vestibule and Central Tomb Chamber
02. Abydos (Abtu) 20. Graeco-Roman Museum
03. Temple of Osiris 21. High Dam
04. The Osirieon 22. Montazah Complex
05. Temple of Ramesses II 23. Nubia Museum
06. Colossi of Memnon 24. Roman Theater (Kom Al-Dikka)
07. Citadel of Qaitbey 25. Temple Of Dandara
08. Edfu 26. Temple of Kom-ombo
09. Esna 27. Temple of Luxor
10. Karnak 28. Sun Temple of Ramesses II
11. Precinct of Montu 29. Nefertari's Temple of Hathor
(Abu Simbel - Small Temple)
12. Precinct of Mut 30. The Great Pyramids & Sphinx
13. Karnak, Temple of Amun-Ra 31. The Egyptian museum
14. Akhenaten Temples 32. The Citadel
15. Plant Island, Gizirat al-Nabatat,
Botanical Island)
33. The Unfinished Obelisk
16. Philae Temple 34. Valley of the Kings
17. St. Catherine's Monastery 35. Valley of the Queens
18. Catacombs of Kom es-Shouqafa    
 

Vestibule and Central Tomb Chamber

 
These are the main chambers. They are lit by a single electric light bulb that throws the chamber into green, a perfect staging for that composite art. In the center of the facade, the familiar solar disk is carved below frieze of serpents. Left and right are two serpents wearing the crowns of upper and lower Egypt. These are not the lithe cobras of Saqqara or Thebes. They seemed to be designed as modern book comics. In the Tomb Chamber, the dead lies on a lion-shaped bier attended by Horus, Thoth, Anubis, and other familiar funerary deities and funerary equipment : Canopic jars, the priest in his panther skin, and the king making an offering to the deceased in the form of Osiris. These figures are rendered in Greco-Roman style. To the traditional scenes are added bunches of grapes, Medusa heads, and a variety of Greek and Roman decorative devices.
 

 

Temple of Dendera

 
 
The approach path to the temple is between two Roman fountains that end at the massive entry gate.The enclosure walls are mud-brick and date to the Roman era. Within the walls are the temple, two birth houses, a Coptic Basilica, a sanitorium, a sacred lake, and a temple to Isis. The temple has a long history. There is evidence that Pepi I (Old Kingdom) rebuilt the temple while other texts refer to reconditioning by Thutmose III, Amenhotep III and Ramesses II and III (of the New Kingdom). Additions were made during the Greek, Roman and Ptolemy periods.
 

 

Temple of Kom-ombo

 
 

Location :

Kom Ombo, Egypt

Description :

Located in the town of Kom-ombo, about 28 miles north of Aswan, the Temple, dating to the Ptolemies, is built on a high dune overlooking the Nile. The actual temple was started by Ptolemy VI Philometor in the early second century BC.  Ptolemy XIII built the outer and inner hypostyle halls. The outer enclosure wall and part of the court were built by Augustus sometime after 30 BC, and are mostly gone.  There are also tombs from the Old Kingdom in the vicinity of Kom-ombo village.

The Temple known as Kom Ombo is actually two temples consisting of a Temple to Sobek and a Temple of Haroeris.  In ancient times, sacred crocodiles basked in the sun on the river bank near here. The Temple has scant remains, due first to the changing Nile, then the Copts who once used it as a church, and finally by builders who used the stones for new buildings.

Everything is duplicated along the main axis.  There are two entrances, two courts, two colonades, two hypostyle halls and two sanctuaries.  There were probably even two sets of priests. The left, or northern side is dedicated to Haroeris (sometimes called Harer, Horus the Elder) who was the falcon headed sky god and the right to Sobek (the corcodile headed god).  The two gods are accompanied by their families.  They include Haroeris'  wife named Tesentnefert, meaning the good sister and his son, Panebtawy.  Sobeck likewise is accompanied by his consort, Hathor and son, Khonsu.

Foundations are all that are left of the original Pylon.  Beyond the Pylon, there was once a staircase in the court that lead to a roof terrace.  The court has a columned portico and central altar.  There is a scene of the King leaving his palace escorted by standards. Near the sanctuary is a purification scene.  On either side of the door to the pronaos are columns inscribed with icons of the lotus (south) and papyrus (north), symbolizing the 'two lands' of Egypt.

In the southwest corner of the pronaos is the one column that does not echo the duality of the temples.  Here, there are scenes depicting purification of the King, his coronation and his consecration of the Temple.  The ceiling has astronomical images.

The hypostyle hall has papyrus capitals on the columns.  Here, there is an inventory of the scared places of Egypt, the gods of the main towns and the local and national festivals. 

In the anti chamber, there are scenes depicting the goddess Seshat launching the building of the temple, followed by a scene of the completed temple with the king throwing natron in a purification ceremony.  The staircase leading to the roof is all that remains of the offering hall.

Statues to the gods and the builders of the temple once occupied the net room just before the sanctuaries.  The ceiling of the pure place to the north still remains with an image of Nut.  There is little left of the sanctuaries. 

 

 

Temple of Luxor

 
 
The Temple of Luxor was the center of the most important one, the festival of Opet. Built largely by Amenhotep III and Ramesses II, it appears that the temple's purpose was for a suitable setting for the rituals of the festival. The festival itself was to reconcile the human aspect of the ruler with the divine office. During the 18th Dynasty the festival lasted eleven Days, but had grown to twenty-seven Days by the reign of Ramesses III in the 20th Dynasty. At that time the festival included the distribution of over 11,000 loaves of bread, 85 cakes and 385 jars of beer. The procession of images of the current royal family began at Karnak and ended at the Temple of Luxor. By the late 18th Dynasty the journey was being made by barge, on the Nile River. Each god or goddess was carried in a separate barge that was towed by smaller boats. Large crowds consisting of soldiers, dancers, musicians and high ranking officials accompanied the barge by walking along the banks of the river. During the festival the people were allowed to ask favors of the statues of the kings or to the images of the gods that were on the barges. Once at the temple, the king and his priests entered the back chambers. There, the king and his ka (the divine essence of each king, created at his birth) were merged, the king being transformed into a divine being. The crowd outside, anxiously awaiting the transformed king, would cheer wildly at his re-emergence. This solidified the ritual and made the king a god. The festival was the backbone of the pharaoh's government. In this way could a usurper or one not of the same bloodline become ruler over Egypt.
 

 

Sun Temple of Ramesses II

 
 

The main temple was dedicated to Ramesses II and to the four universal gods Ptah, Re-Harakhte, Amun-Re, and to Ramesses II himself. Of the seven temples he built, Abu Simbel is considered to be the most impressive.

The facade of the main temple is 108 feet high and 125 feet wide with four colossal seated statues about 65 feet high wearing the double crown and having the cartouches of Ramesses II. They are taller than the colossi of Memnon at Thebes and are carved out of solid rock. At the feet of the calossus, beginning on the left are Queen Nofretari, Prince Amenhirkhopshef, the Kings mother Muttuya, Princess Bent'anta, unnamed, but probably Esenofre, Princess Nebettawy, Queen Muttuya, Princess Nofretari, Princess Merytamun, Princess Beketmut, Prince Ri'amsese, and Queen Nofretari, who where all members of Ramesses II's family. (Editor's Note : We wonder if Ramesses II bribed his kids to make good grades. Bring home an A and I'll put you in my new Colossus.)

Above the doorway in a niche stands the sun god, a falcon headed representation of Ramesses, holding a war-scepter which shows the head and neck of an animal which is read as user, in his right and a figure of Ma'at in his left. This cleverly creates the Kings throne name of User-Ma'at-Re. At the top of the facade is a row of baboons which are thought to be greeting the morning sun and indeed the monument looks best at that time. The sides of the thrones next to the entrance are decorated with Nile gods symbolically uniting Egypt, while below are prisoners, representing conquered nations, to the left, African and to the right, Asian.

The entrance leads into a Grand Hall which is 57 feet high and 52 feet wide and was cut from the rock. It is supported with eight pillars with statues of Ramesses. The statues on the north side of the hall wear the double crown, while those on the south the white crown of upper Egypt. Just as other temples in Egypt, the floor and ceiling taper off to draw focus to the sanctuaries in the back of the temple. The reliefs on the north wall of the Grand Hall show scenes from the Battle of Kadesh. Other walls depict the king slaughtering captives in front of the gods Amun-Re and Re-Harakhte, and storming a fortress with his three sons.

To either side of the Grand Hall are smaller rooms, two to the South and four to the North. Most suggest that these rooms were for storage (treasure rooms) but elsewhere it is suggested that they were used for festivals related to the Kings Jubilee.

 
 

Beyond the Grand Hall is the second hypostyle hall with its flowered pillars. Scenes in this hall show the King and his wife, Nefertari making offerings to Amun and Re-Harakhte (the Sun God), and beyond that is the three chapels, the central one containing the four deities worshipped in the temple (including Ramesses II). A Solstices occurs twice a year on or about February 20-22nd and October 20-22nd when the rays from the sun enter the front of the temple and bathe the statues of the Gods 200 feet inside the temple with light. Interestingly enough, all but Ptah, the source of Chthonian life.

On either side of the Facade are two small chapels. At the Southeast corner of the facade there are three stelae. One of these is called the Marriage Stela and documents the marriage of Ramesses II to the daughter of the King of the Hittites. (Editors Note : The question is, what did she look like? Did Ramesses consider this a heroic deed?) On the other side of the Facade is the Sun Chapel, an open court dedicated to the sun. Here, there are pillars with cavetto cornices. The one with steps held four praying baboons, the other a chapel with images of Khepri and Baboon-Thoth. The latter is now in the Antiquities Museum in Cairo.

 

 

Nefertari's Temple of Hathor (Abu Simbel - Small Temple)

 
 

Hathor was the wife of the Sun God so in a symbolic way, the two Temples, that of Ramesses II and that of Nefertari, brings Ramesses II and Nefertari and Hathor and the Sun God together as one. The facade of the temple is a receding Pylon, just as the larger temple of Ramesses II. On either side of the entrance to the temple are a deified statue of Nefertari with statues of Ramesses II on either side of her. The statues of Nefertari are the same height as those of Ramesses, which is unusual. Like at Ramesses II's temple, there are children depicted around their feet. There are cobras protecting the Temple door.

This temple is much simpler than the Temple of Re-Herakhte. It has only one hypostyle hall and the sanctuary. Within the hall are images of Ramesses in battle with Nefertari present. Other scenes depict Ramesses being crowned by Horus and Seith and presenting Ma'at to Amun. On the back wall, Nefertari is before Hathor and Mut. Just behind the Hypostyle Hall is a small chamber with images of Hathor cow framed in reeds. Beyond that is the sanctuary with a divine cow emerging from the rear rock wall protecting Ramesses, below her. Above the cow, vultures guard the Queens cartouches. Other scenes show Nefertari offering incense to Mut and Hathor, and the King worshipping before his own image and that of Nefertari


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