Visit the most historical places of
Egypt and see an exhibition of photographs showing the
different historical places.
and Central Tomb Chamber
|These are the main chambers. They are
lit by a single electric light bulb that throws the
chamber into green, a perfect staging for that composite
art. In the center of the facade, the familiar solar
disk is carved below frieze of serpents. Left and right
are two serpents wearing the crowns of upper and lower
Egypt. These are not the lithe cobras of Saqqara or
Thebes. They seemed to be designed as modern book comics.
In the Tomb Chamber, the dead lies on a lion-shaped
bier attended by Horus, Thoth, Anubis, and other familiar
funerary deities and funerary equipment : Canopic jars,
the priest in his panther skin, and the king making
an offering to the deceased in the form of Osiris. These
figures are rendered in Greco-Roman style. To the traditional
scenes are added bunches of grapes, Medusa heads, and
a variety of Greek and Roman decorative devices.
|The museum was first built in 1892 as
a small building located on Horreya Road - Alexandria.
In 1895 it was transferred to the present site near
Gamal Abdul Nasser Road. It started with eleven galleries,
and has been gradually enlarged in later renovation
stages. The 25th gallery was inaugurated in 1984. It
contains a very big variety of coins from different
countries, chronologically arranged, and dating back
from 630 BC to the Ottoman period in the 19th century.
The collection, which covers the period from the 3rd
century BC to the 7th century AD, is a fascinating record
of civilization in the process of change as religions
merged and society evolved.
Graeco-Roman and Pharaonic religions mingled
in the cult of Serapis; the shift from pagan
religions to Christianity can also be seen in
the exhibits which include mummies, Hellenistic
statues, busts of Roman emperors, Tangara figurines,
and early Christian antiquities.
The museum contains hundreds of
precious antiques. We will describe the most
valuable ones or the best areas in the museum.
Honestly, I have been to that museum more than
five times and I still would love to go again.
Room 1 : In this room, we can see
the beautiful alabaster Good Shepherd. Its large
eyes and flat, regular of the robe is a development
from the Coptic style. Part of the hall displays
artifacts from the Monastery of St. Menas, west
Room 2 : Contains many architectural
elements from early Christian buildings, the
central basket capital is a typical Coptic art.
Room 3 : This room has magnificent
collection of metal, silver and gold. The silver
torso of Aphrodite dates from the 2nd century.
There is a varied collection of ancient jewelry
with different magnificent colors.
Room 4 : Devoted to Coptic textiles
from some of the finest weavers in the Christian
Room 5 : An amazing ancient model
of a water cooling system.
|In Room 6 we can find The Apis Bull, found to
the west of Pompey's Pillar. The statue was set
up in the reign of Hadrian (AD 117-138). This
bull represents the most successful imposition
of Greek realism upon an Egyptian image. The Serapis
Head is sculptured with fine white marble. It
was found near the Pompey's Pillar. It was one
of the Ptolemies' gods. This god was a blend of
Osiris and Apis. A visitor can see fine mosaics,
an Alexandrine specialty, including one of a ship
sailing, done with colored pebbles set in cement.
This is the earliest type of mosaic made.
Room 7 : The two headless sphinxes,
carved under Amenhemhet IV (12th Dynasty), are spectacular.
The two headless black basalt statues of Isis in the
niches flanking the doorway show us a clear example
of Isis Knot.
Room 8 : This room is devoted to mummies
and sarcophagi. A visitor can see the difference between
the gilded and painted cartonnage of the pharaonic
mummies and the ornate diamond bandage of the Ptolemaic
Room 9 : This room is mainly dedicated
to show pieces of a shrine in the Fayoum dedicated
to the Crocodile-god, Pnepheros.
Room 11 : Contains some of the most interesting
statues, in which Egyptian scenes and techniques are
portrayed with Greek influences. We can see image
of divine serpents " The Agathadaimon Stelae" and
their worshippers. Limestone fragments from a temple
at Athribis (Benha) are along the north wall of the
room. The god Tutu faces Horus and Athribis with a
broken inscription of Greek between them.
Room 12 : Contains statues of Graeco-Roman
period. A colossal red granite head of Ptolemy IV,
was found at Abuqir, wearing the double crown of Egypt.
The mosaic of Medusa, once a pavement, originally
showed Medusa's entire body. The most spectacular
piece is the colossal white marble statue of Marcus
Aurelius (121-180 AD), which was discovered under
the Sayed Darwish Theater. In the same room, we can
see a marble statue of Isis as a goddess of the Nile
reclining against a sphinx.
Her left hand holds a vessel for the Holy Water and
the eight children climbing over her represent the
eight cubits the Nile rises for a perfect flood.
Room 14 : is filled with portrait heads
of famous Romans : Hadrian, Vespasian, and Augustus.
Room 16 : Contains some of the finest
Hellenistic statuary available. The torso of Aphrodite
is magnificent . At the end of the hall are a couple
of male torsos, a female, and a seated male, which
belonged to a group of statues carved for a pediment
for a palace near the eastern harbor.
Room 17 : Contains some of the best Sarcophagi
found. The most unique one shows Ariadne asleep on
the island of Naxos. The god of sleep (Hypnos) stands
by her head, and behind him lies the boat that brought
her from Crete. Her husband, Dionysisu, stands in
front of her with his retinue. The rest of the facade
shows a drunken Hercules being helped homeward.
Room 18 : The funerary amphora from Chatby.
It dates to the end of the fourth century BC. It still
has its artificial wreath of green leaves and golden
berries around its neck. Another display is a unique
collection of clay Tanagra ( an ancient city in the
northern part of Greece) figures. This collection
spans the 3rd century BC to the 1st century AD. It
provides information about women's fashions, hairstyles,
hats and dresses in the ancient world.
Room 21 : This room contains plenty of
pottery and some statues. The statue that stands out
in this hall is a Hercules statue with a club in his
left hand and his lion-skin coat in his right.
Room 22 : This hall is dedicated to colored
glassware. Early in Egypt's history, the people learned
how to make glass. It is a chance to see the early
discovery of the fusion of soda and sand. At the end
of the hall is a beautiful bronze head of Hadrian
|The Sculpture Garden : The garden of the
museum is full of spectacular statues and artifacts.
Located near Aswan,
the world famous High
Dam was an engineering miracle when it was
built in the 1960s. It contains 18 times the
material used in the Great Pyramid of Cheops.
The Dam is 11,811 feet long, 3215 feet thick
at the base and and 364 feet tall. Today it
provides irrigation and electricity for the
whole of Egypt and, together with the old Aswan
Dam built by the British between 1898 and 1902`,
6km down river, wonderful views for visitors.
From the top of the two Mile long High
Dam you can gaze across Lake Nassar, the
huge reservoir created when it was built, to
Kalabsha temple in the south and the huge power
station to the north.
Dam created a 30% increase in the cultivatable
land in Egypt, and raised the water table for
the Shara as far away as Algeria. The
electricity producing capability of the Dam
doubled Egypt's available supply.
Dam added an whole new aspect to Egypt,
and a new environment as well. The lake
is some 500 miles long and at the time it was
built, if not now, was the world's largest artificial
|This 115 acre complex is surrounded by
great walls from the south, east and west, and with
the beach on its north side. This area used to belong
to the Mohamed Ali family, that ruled Egypt from the
mid 19th century until 1952. The construction was started
in 1892 by King Abbas II, who built a large palace inside
the complex called the Salamlek. In 1932, King Fuad
built a larger palace and called it the Haramlik. His
son, King Farouk, built a bridge to the sea to act as
a water front. The rest of the 115 acres is nothing
but beautiful gardens. Palm trees and gazelles cover
the area. This is a wonderful spot to enjoy the beauty
The Nubia Museum harbors the history of
the "Land of Gold" as the word Nubia in the Hieroglyphic,
language of ancient Egypt in which pictorial symbols
are used to represent meaning and sounds, means the
"Land of Gold"...Hence, this land, over times, was
abounding in monumental treasures.
The Nubia Museum, in Aswan,
as a matter of fact, is deemed to be one of the most
museums. A number of factors have combined together,
yielding the magnificence of such museum, as it is
the only unique open museum of its kind.
Preparing this museum lasted for ten years, all dedicated
for hard work to come up with such lovely museum.
Let alone, it stands as a wonderful model of international
cultural cooperation representing in United Nations
Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
In April 6 th, 1959, the Egyptian government appealed
to the United Nations Educational, Cultural, and Scientific
Organization (UNESCO), seeking help to salvage the
monumental sites in Nubia, hence, the area between
and the Sudan was inundated by the Nile waters especially
after completing the Aswan
The response of the (UNESCO), in fact, came fast,
as it called upon the international community to contribute
to this project.
Since then, (UNESCO) has been a key player
in the archaeological field in Egypt.
In no time, the executive committee, comprising representative
of 15 member states, was set up, and was commissioned
with studying technical, monumental and financial
reports with the aim of providing the (UNESCO) with
basic information required to effectively implement
The (UNESCO), obviously, has contributed much to nudging
the entire world to pay more attention to saving such
invaluable monuments. By the end of 1975, and as a
result of this relentless support on the part of the
(UNESCO), the donations influx - contributed by 24
countries - amounted to $ 123304.
Unsurprisingly then that the operation of saving the
Nubian monuments was described as the greatest in
the history of saving monuments.
The operation, as known, included dismantling Abu
Simbel Temple, inter alia, moving it to
another area to be reassembled once again. Abu
Simbel Temple was completely dismantled to 1036
pieces, each with average of 7 to 30 tons, as they
were rebuilt on the top of the mountain overlooking
the genuine spots, drawn by the ancient Egyptians
3000 years ago.
The world outcry, however, was translated into many
concrete actions; donations to salvage the deteriorated-condition
monuments, a number of excavation missions - which
pursued their tasks in such hard conditions in areas
extend 500 kilometres along the Nile banks.
A number of 40 missions have taken part in this great
but difficult job, unearthing several priceless treasures
dating back to pre-history times; Pharaonic, Greek,
Roman, Islamic and Coptic.
Fossils, which were discovered during excavations,
undoubtedly provided full knowledge about Nubian life
and its development along ages.
In January, 1975, the General Egyptian Authority for
Antiquities submitted a request to the (UNESCO) seeking
the organisation's assistance to preserve the ancient
Egyptian monuments, through establishing a city for
museums harbouring a cluster of open museums with
a view to displaying rare and wonderful monuments
of various ages.
Being the main supporter to save the Nubian monuments,
the (UNESCO) approved this request, and entrusted
the executive committee, responsible for salvaging
operations, with assuming the tasks of this new project.
This committee was named the "The Executive Committee
for the International Campaign for Establishing the
International Museum of the Monuments of Nubia in
and the National Museum for Ancient Egyptian
Since February, 1981, a number of symposiums and seminars
was held for contribution to this great project. It
was the first time in the history of the (USECO) to
decide launching an international campaign to establish
local museum. This, however, could be ascribed to
the magnificent monumental treasures Egypt has.
On February 4 th, 1986, the foundation stone of the
museum of Nubia was laid down, playing new effective
role that was derived from the spring of culture and
civilization at both home and international levels.
To the Egyptians, the museum is to display life over
centuries. As for foreign visitors, the museum will
show the history of such unique area, as a source
of knowledge for researchers from around the globe.
The International Museum of Nubia is located in Aswan
on an area of 50,000 square meters, 7000 of which
are excluded to building, while the rest designed
to be the yard of the museum.
The building has three floors for displaying and housing,
in addition to a library and information center. The
largest part of the museum is occupied by the monumental
pieces, reflecting phases of the development of the
Nubian culture and civilization.
Three thousands pieces of antiq., representing various
ages; Geological, Pharaonic, Roman, Coptic and Islamic,
were registered. The open-door exhibition includes
90 rare monumental pieces, while the internal halls
contain 50 invaluable pieces dating back to the pre-history
times, 503 pieces belong to Pharaonic time, 52 of
Coptic era, 103 of Islamic age, 140 of Nubian time,
in addition to 360 pieces having the tang of Aswan.
The work in this unique edifice lasted for 11 years
straight, and cost LE 60 million.
The museum of Nubia gained this unique position simply
because it harbors unique monuments not in any elsewhere.
It houses the statute of Ramsis II, which was laid
at the very forefront of the Museum, statute of Amenras
the spiritual wife of Amen, she is of Nubian origin.
It, also, has the head of the Shpatka, of the Nubian
origin, made of rosy granite, head of black granite
of Tahraqa, the Nubian King, whose reign during the
7th century BC was said to be full of prosperity.
There is a temple of his name with gold-plated pillars.
There are, also, four mummies for nobles, which were
found in Kashmatkh town in Nubia. The museum,
as well, houses several models and styles of the Nubian
heritage, the panorama of the Nile, depicting live
image of the River Nile streaming through its banks.
There is also a model for the Nubian-style house,
typically copied to mirror the nature of life in Nubia.
All pieces exhibited in the museum
reflect the character of the Nubia over history and
display how it merged with the Islamic civilization
on one hand and the mother civilization of Egypt on
So, the museum of Nubia plays vital role not only
at the level of promoting Nubia to the entire world
but also at the level of maintaining monuments and
supporting researchers, interested in Nubia, from
around the globe.
This, however could be achieved through the museum's
study center and the documentation centers which publish
more information on the "Land of Gold" in Egypt, the
past, the present and the future.
Nubia Museum, which hosts 3000 monumental pieces of
several times, ranks tenth in the list of the museums
inaugurated in Egypt over the past three years. An
array of important museums, however, has been inaugurated;
Mohamed Nagui Museum, Modern Egyptian Art Museum,
Museum of Mohamed Mahmoud Khalil and his wife, Museum
of Ahmed Desouki,
Port Said Museum for Modern Arts, Taha Hussein Museum,
and the Mummification Museum in Luxor.
Theater (Kom Al-Dikka)
|Over 30 years of excavation have uncovered
many Roman remains including this well-preserved theatre
with galleries, sections of mosaic-flooring, and marble
seats for up to 800 spectators. In Ptolemaic times,
this area was the Park of Pan and a pleasure garden.
The theater at one point may had been roofed over to
serve as an Odeon for musical performances. Inscriptions
suggest that it was sometimes also used for wrestling
contests. The theatre stood with thirteen semi-circular
tiers of white marble that was imported from Europe.
Its columns are of green marble imported from Asia Minor,
and red granite imported from Aswan.
The wings on either side of the stage are decorated
with geometric mosaic paving. The dusty walls of the
trenches, from digging in the northeast side of the
Odeon, are layered with extraordinary amounts of potsherds.
Going down out of the Kom, you can see the substantial
arches and walls in stone, the brick of the Roman baths,
and the remains of Roman houses.